Explicit Instruction (I, We, Y'all, You)
Effect Size: .57
Definition: "Explicit instruction is characterized by a series of supports of scaffolds, whereby students are guided through the learning process with clear statements about the purpose and rationale for learning the new skills, clear explanations and demonstrations of the instructional target, and supported practice with feedback until independent mastery has been achieved" (Archer, 2011).
- The effectiveness of explicit instruction has been validated repeatedly by research involving general education and special education students. The effect sizes for the following explicit teaching methods are given: reciprocal teaching .74, feedback .72, student self-verbalization .67, frequent testing .46, direct instruction .59. These effect sizes tell us that significant student progress is made when these techniques are used.
- It is absolutely necessary when student discovery is impossible, inaccurate, incomplete, or inefficient. Examples: How sounds are associated with letters, how quantity is associated with numbers, the order of operations in algebra, the process for sounding out words, the construction of a persuasive essay, the elements in scientific inquiry, or specific spelling rules. (Archer, 2011)
Explicit instruction is made up of sixteen different elements, that when combined, yield increased skill and concept mastery by all students. These elements are:
- Focus instruction on critical content.
- Sequence skills logically.
- Break down complex skills and strategies into smaller instructional units.
- Design organized and focused lessons.
- Begin lessons with a clear statement of the lesson goals and expectations.
- Review prior skills and knowledge before introducing new material.
- Provide step-by-step demonstrations.
- Use step-by-step demonstrations.
- Use clear and concise language.
- Provide an adequate range of examples and non-examples.
- Require frequent responses.
- Monitor student performance closely.
- Provide immediate affirmative feedback and corrective feedback.
- Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace.
- Help students organize knowledge.
- Provide distributed and cumulative practice.
Explicit Instruction: Effective Classroom Practices Report
Video - Teaching Matters: Explicit Instruction
Video - Direct Instruction
Video - Anita Archer (Elementary)
Video - Anita Archer (Secondary)